Innovations in Fisheries Bioengineering – Blending Ecology, Engineering, and Policy to Address Current Challenges: Part I (hosted by AFS)

Many river systems have been altered by human action over the last century. Among other impacts, the development of water control structures, dams, and road networks affect aquatic habitat quality and inhibit movement patterns of migratory and riverine fishes. While such structures are often essential to human society, their disruption of the natural patterns and life histories of aquatic species can be ameliorated with thoughtful application of creative designs that support aquatic connectivity. Fish scientists, hydrologists, and engineers combine their expertise in the bioengineering field to advance fisheries science, seek innovative solutions to river management, and to minimization the anthropogenic impacts on aquatic habitat quality, connectivity and fish populations. The objectives of the symposium is to bring an interdisciplinary perspective on the interactions between human development of river systems and fish populations, and share science about the following issues: • Providing safe and timely fish passage in river systems • Fish Protection, exclusion, and guidance • Bioengineering project monitoring and performance evaluation • Stream Restoration and Aquatic Habitat Design • The Innovation Process and human dimensions in bioengineering -This will be a panel discussion with some speakers from the symposium and a representative from NMFS. The focus will be on how we can move forward with innovations to benefit fish population under the current regulatory umbrella. We will address questions such as: How can we create opportunities for testing and advancing new ideas while protecting ESA-listed populations? What are some issues that we have encountered that could benefit from innovative design? As human development of rivers and their surrounding basins affects fish and wildlife populations worldwide, the exchange of information and ideas in this session will be of interest to a wide audience within the AFS and TWS communities.

8:00AM Welcoming Remarks
8:20AM Passage through Time and Space – the Evolving Science of Fishway Design and the Rise of Adaptive Management
  Theodore Castro-Santos
The importance of providing passage for diadromous fishes has been recognized for millennia and by many cultures. Effectiveness of passage measures has likewise long been a matter of some contention, a polemic that continues today. As hydroelectric power continues to develop globally the diversity of species requiring passage has also grown, raising concerns as to whether effective passage is possible or realistic. At the same time the threats posed by invasive species to native fisheries has prompted the construction of new barriers designed to prevent passage, yet managers wish to maintain connectivity and access for native species. Recent technological advances to monitoring and evaluation—as well as basic understanding of physiology and behavior—have helped clarify the challenges of fish passage; however the technology has in many ways outpaced the quantitative methods needed to appropriately interpret and understand the data they provide. This issue is now being addressed, and with improved rigor the challenges are becoming clearer, as well as the opportunities for effective management.
8:40AM The Fishway Entrance Palisade: A New Approach to Discharging Attraction Flow
  Kevin Mulligan, Brett Towler, Alex Haro, Bjorn Lake, Marcia Rojas, Richard Palmer
The Entrance Palisade is an innovative upstream fish passage structure that integrates a vertically oriented louvered exclusion diffuser, an at-grade free-surface dissipation pool, and a conventional fishway entrance. This novel fishway entrance represents a paradigm shift in delivering fishway attraction water for successful fish passage and has the potential to drastically reduce construction costs for hydropower sites. In the Spring of 2019, experiments were conducted at the United States Geological Survey Leetown Science Center Conte Anadromous Fish Research Laboratory in collaboration with the University of Massachusetts Amherst, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, the National Marine Fisheries Service, and the Department of Energy. These experiments were aimed at evaluating the fish passage performance of the Entrance Palisade under several flow conditions with live, actively-migrating adult American shad. Hydraulics were measured in a 1:8 scale model followed by a biological evaluation with American shad in the full-scale device. This presentation will provide an overview of the Entrance Palisade design, results from the hydraulic evaluation, and an analysis of the American shad passage performance.
9:00AM Complexities in Attraction Flow: Effects of Wall Diffuser Auxiliary Water Systems on Fish Behavior
  Marcia Rojas, Kevin Mulligan, Richard Palmer, Alex Haro, Brett Towler, Bjorn Lake
Sufficient attraction flow is key in guiding fish to the entrance of successful fishways. To meet this need, flow is often added into the fishway entrance channel via an Auxiliary Water System (AWS) with either a floor or wall diffuser. However, the hydraulic complexities associated with AWS inside the entrance channel are suspected to cause behavioral responses that negatively affect safe and timely fish passage. The research presented in this paper provides primary insight on the behavioral response of American shad to wall diffusers in the fishway entrance. During the spring of 2019, research was conducted on a full-scale wall diffuser using actively migrating American shad to assess the behavioral responses in a controlled environment. The experiment held constant 2.0 fps flow conditions in the entrance channel immediately upstream of the diffuser, while varying wall diffuser velocity from 0.5 to 1.0 fps. Hydraulic data on the diffuser was gathered from a 1:8 scale physical model. This study was conducted at the United States Geological Survey Leetown Science Center Conte Anadromous Fish Research Laboratory in collaboration with the University of Massachusetts Amherst, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, the National Marine Fisheries Service, and the Department of Energy.
9:20AM Upstream Migrant Trapping Solutions for a Puget Sound Glacial-Fed River and Abundant Pink Salmon Runs
  Fred Goetz
The Seattle District (USACE) is building a facility to replace a 75-year-old trap below a Mud Mountain Dam in western Washington. The White River is a glacial fed river system flowing from Mt Rainier, which carries up to 50,000 tons of bedload per year. The river has seen establishment of pink salmon runs since 2001 that can exceed 1,000,000 in a year. The existing fish trap, aka a Buckley Style trap, is one of the oldest trapping systems in the Pacific Northwest, designed to pass 4,000 fish in a year and utilizes a 100-yr old wood-flash board barrier to keep salmon from reaching the base of the dam. In 2009, the facility passed over 540,000 pink salmon while 450,000 remained in the river within 1-mile of the facility. The new facility is designed to pass a maximum of 60,000 fish in a day, 1.25 million fish in a year, and to manage the large bedload and woody debris with a moveable gate system. The presentation will discuss these unique design problems, with potential solutions for sediment management, and facility features necessary to pass 60,000 pink salmon in one day.
09:40AM Break
10:10AM Incorporating Pacific Lamprey in Fish Passage Designs: Capabilities, Considerations and Innovative Solutions
  Stewart B. Reid, Damon H. Goodman
Fish passage designs frequently focus on the capabilities of fishes with commercial or sport interest, or those with regulatory criteria under the Endangered Species Act. On the west coast, fishways are typically designed to meet the needs of native salmonids. However, the native population of anadromous Pacific Lamprey, Entosphenus tridentatus, has exhibited substantial declines range-wide. Obstruction of historical spawning and rearing habitat by dams is recognized as the primary direct threat in freshwater. Often these dams have fishways designed for salmonids, but due to inherent design/management features they impede or completely block Pacific Lamprey. We first review the unique attributes of Pacific Lamprey, including their behavior, swimming characteristics, climbing capabilities, and use of peripheral routes over barriers. Then we examine existing design features, possible modifications to facilitate lamprey passage without substantially altering the inherent nature of fishways designed for other fishes, and finally we explore alternative routes that take lampreys past barriers without following the established fishway. Our goal is to ensure that modern fishways are part of the solution for all native fishes and not part of the problem.
10:30AM Improving Fish Protection and Passage at a Century Old Facility – Alameda Creek Diversion Dam Fish Passage and Screening Improvements
  Michael Garello, Susan Hou
The Alameda Creek Diversion Dam (ACDD) is a 30-foot tall concrete gravity dam used to divert water to Calaveras Reservoir near the coastal mountains near San Jose, California. Since its construction in 1931, the ACDD remained a complete barrier to the upstream migration of Central Coast California Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and allowed entrainment and conveyance of juvenile steelhead to Calaveras Reservoir with no safe outlet back to the ocean. As part of San Francisco Public Utility Commission’s (SFPUC) current environmentally focused efforts throughout the watershed, the ACDD structure and its operation have been modified to benefit a future run of steelhead in Alameda Creek. While the historic aspects of ACDD remained in place, SFPUC completed significant modifications to the original ogee dam including construction of a screened surface water intake and a fish ladder to provide fish passage over the ACDD. This presentation describes the completed fish passage and screening facility and includes discussion of several project challenges including integration with the old structure, developing a new water conveyance strategy, maintaining downstream instream flow targets, sediment and debris management tactics, and the unique challenges of remote operation off the grid.
10:50AM Sea Lamprey Attachment Behavior and Sprinting Performance: Importance for Improving Passage or Exclusion at Barriers
  Elsa Goerig, Shannon Bayse, Theodore Castro-Santos
Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) is a native anadromous species in eastern North America and Europe but is considered invasive in the Great Lakes. Lampreys migrate up rivers to spawn, relying on swimming performance and attachment to the substrate to overcome high velocities areas. Several strategies have been implemented to reduce lamprey dispersal in the Great Lakes, including physical barriers. To optimize lamprey passage or exclusion at barriers, it is essential to understand their behavior and swimming ability. Here we present results on attachment behavior and swimming performance of lamprey in a 35 m experimental flume mimicking natural river conditions. Wild lampreys were intercepted during their freshwater migration, PIT-tagged and tested under a range of flow velocities. An array of 16 PIT readers monitored their progression in the flume. Two treatments were applied: a bare flume where attachment was possible, and the flume lined with an attachment-inhibiting material. In the bare flume, lampreys were able to swim up to 20 m against velocities as high as 3.5 m s-1. With the attachment-inhibiting material in place, maximum distance ascended by lamprey was much reduced. These results have implications for fishway design, and development of selective passage solutions.
11:10AM State of the Art, Engineering, and Performance of American Eel Upstream Fishways
  Steven Shepard, Brett Towler, Gail Wippelhauser, Jon Truebe
We present a review of upstream eel passage facilities in the last two decades with numerous data sets describing effectiveness and performance. From the development of eels ramps, to the varieties of substrate and engineering features that are used in contemporary eel ramps. We review recent volitional designs based on fishways for European eels. We conclude with recent work in Maine on eel passage effectiveness through technical fishways such as vertical slot fishways designed for anadromous species.
11:30AM Integrating the Phototaxis with Response Characteristics of Ptychobarbus Kaznakovi Under Different Light Environments: A Distinct Experiment Insight
  Chenyu Lin, Huichao Dai, Xiaotao Shi, Jingqiao Mao, Jia Luo, Wenqin Huang, Jiawei Xu, Ning Zhang, Shuangke Sun
Currently, reliable data on fish behavior in response to a changing light environment are scarce. This study was conducted to test behavioural responses of a native cyprinid fish in Tibet (Ptychobarbus kaznakovi) under different light wavelengths and intensities by adopting and merging three ethological indicators: PR (Phototaxis Rate), RSS (Relative Swimming Speed) and a self-defined variable OEC (Optic Evasion Coefficient), which is used to measure the avoidance degree of individual under light stimulus. The results demonstrate that P. kaznakovi presented the preference to darkness in all given experimental trials, and all wavelengths promoted the individuals to move. Green dramatically increased the RSS no matter whether the fish was in the light, while red likewise increased the swimming speed but only under the bright condition. Under the red light, the OEC prominently increased in the intensity range of 15 to 30 lx, while it was relatively low and uniform across the intensity levels under the green light. Finally, the underlying mechanism promoting fish movement is supposed to be stress response under “light pressure” in red and instinctive preference in green; therefore green and red light seems ideal for fish attraction and guidance in the fish passage or restoration projects.

Organizers: Jonathon Mann, Randy Beckwith, MaryLouise Keefe, Elsa Goerig
Supported by: Bioengineering Section of American Fisheries Society; AFS Fish Habitat Section

Location: Reno-Sparks CC Date: October 2, 2019 Time: 8:00 am - 11:50 am